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 Chapter 14 Discussion

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PostSubject: Chapter 14 Discussion   Sun Oct 09, 2011 7:29 pm

With the Scientific Revolution, what is the most valid contribution to society these men and women gave to society? How did these ideas suffer under the Catholic Church and how did they preserver?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Sun Oct 16, 2011 10:08 am

I'll take this.

The men and women of the Scientific Revolution gave society a reason to open up their minds if you will. It was always thought that the universe was geocentric, it revolved around Earth, however Copernicus discovered that the universe was heliocentric (sun-centered). Kepler realized that the planets orbit elliptically rather than circularly. Galileo saw stars that no one knew existed, mountains on the moon, and spots moving on the sun through his telescope. All of these findings opposed Aristotle, Plato and Socrates thus conflicting with the government because they believed what these men found many years ago. Even though these new findings were plausible, it showed that the government was wrong and they did not want the people to stop “believing” in the government.
Many ideas were “shut down” or not told. Many were arrested for expressing their ideas. To overcome this conflict many such as Galileo studied under a higher person, such as a Medici, who had power and money. He also named his work after them so that they would support his work and theories. Since these higher figures were “role models” to the public, society started believing in what they believed.

During this period, far more women were accused and convicted of witchcraft than were permitted to participate in scientific activities. Why? What does this tell us about 16th and 17th century Europe?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Sun Oct 16, 2011 8:43 pm


More women were accused and convicted of being witches because men were intimidated by them. When women participated in scientific activities, they contributed to them through their men, such as a husband, brother, cousin, or anything of that nature. But when a woman was on her own, and if she did better than a man, men would immediately suspect something. Women were breaking out from under male control at the time, and the men didn’t like that, hence they thought that women had evil spirits in themselves for disobeying man. Men were strongly jealous of women; they couldn’t believe what women were doing. For example, Emilie du Chatelet aided Voltaire by helping him out with her knowledge of mathematics. She also translated Newton’s Principia into French, which was only possible because of how much of a genius she was in math. Women assisted men with their scientific needs, but when they went on their own, they were beginning to be looked at suspiciously. A woman didn’t have to be a genius or a science fanatic to be convicted of witchcraft, a majority of the women being convicted of witchcraft were actually midwives, widows, and women healers or herbalists. The healers were thought to be witches because their healing didn’t coincide with the church; it was a whole separate deal. Any woman that didn’t go along with the church was assumed to be associated with the devil, and was therefore assumed to be capable of witchcraft. Only magic of the church, such as transforming bread and wine into the blood and body of Christ, was good magic; everything else was associated with the devil.

Why was Rene Descartes so important during the scientific revolution? And why did he divide existing things the way he did?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Sun Oct 16, 2011 10:25 pm


Rene Descartes’ biggest contribution to the Scientific Revolution was his work with deductive reasoning and using logic to explain existence. This was one of the first logical ways of thinking that was not based solely on religion and could often explain things that could not be explained by science, such as human existence. Is thought process was, “I am thinking so I must be living”, although according to him he could not prove any other beings existence, only himself.

What were some of John Locke's main ideas that Jefferson found so important?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Mon Oct 17, 2011 5:55 pm

ive got this one!

Thomas Jefferson was greatly influcenced by John Locke's beliefs. One of these ideas was that of religous toleration. Locke believed that this would put an end to much of the conflict that came about as a result of religious differences. He felt that each person was responsible for their own salvation and therefore must be given religous toleration. He wrote a Letter Concerning Toleratoin that was used when forming the United States' government. It called for religious toleration and the seperation of church and state. Locke also believed that each person had the right to life, liberty, and property. Jefferson used a similar thought in the Declaration of Independence, stating that each man had certain rights, among them "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." This idea is found in Locke's Second Treatise of Government.

During this time period, Baroque art began. What characterizes this style of art from other styles and how is Baroque art reflective of the Scientific Revolution?
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Alexander Smith

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Mon Oct 17, 2011 7:12 pm

The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, and exuberance in sculpting, painting, literature, dance, and music. Baroque art reflects on the scientific revolution in that the architecture and sculpting of the experienced a great leap forward in detail and complexity from the middle ages thanks to the scientific revolution.

Question: How did Newton build upon the achievements of his predecessors?
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Troy Palmer

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Mon Oct 17, 2011 7:38 pm

Newton is most greatly known as the discover of gravity. However, this discovery did not happen overnight. First, Copernicus created the heliocentric model, makiing the sun the center of the universe, not earth, which was the thought at the time. Then, Johannes Kepler, being aided by his mentor's, Tycho Brahe, notes, discovered the elliptical orbits. There was one unsolved mystery that this left. Why did the planets not fly into space? What kept them in orbit? Those are the questions that Newton answered with gravity, but he would not have came to this conclusion without the work of the scientists before him.

How did the women of the scientific revolution impact it and how were they able to do it (meaning, what circumstances (Hint: has something to do with husbands))?
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Leah Armstrong

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Mon Oct 17, 2011 7:48 pm


Women were not able to do a lot in the scientific revolution, just like the times before it. There were women that were noblewomen that were allowed to get an education but the laywomen weren't generally allotted this privilege. Many of the women were apart of their husbands social circles, like Margaret Cavendish. She was actually a noblewoman that was educated and became well read. She was actually the only woman in the seventeenth century to be able to visit a meeting of the Royal Society of London. Then there was Maria Cunitz was an assistant to her husband in the art of Astronomy and even published a book, but many thought it was done by her husband and not her. So a woman's place in society depended on her husband and his occupation.

Question: Copernicus built on Ptolemy's theory, and Kepler on Copernicus'. How did the theories of each change and try to prove or discredit the others?
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Hollie Austin

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Mon Oct 17, 2011 8:05 pm


Copernicus used most of ptolemys ideas in his theory,such as epicycles,but claimed that the world was heliocentric or sun centered rather than basing it mostly on math like Ptolemy. Kepler was a strong follower of Copernicus,but realized his heliocentric idea wasn't logical but he could work off it to develop his elliptical orbit idea.

How did science affect religion at this time? What are some examples of scientists that struggled with this?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Mon Oct 17, 2011 8:34 pm


the new science posed a challenge to religion. there were major issues at the time. first of all, many theories and discoveries did not agree with biblical statements about heaven. secondly, there were conflicts over who would decide conflicts between church and science--would it be church officials or natural philosophers? Church officials saw their work as trying to replace the spiritual meaning with a materialistic one, but scientist saw otherwise. As if they were only helping to back up the bible's statements not refute them. One scientist who had major problems with the church was Galileo Galilei. He was condemned by the roman catholic church in 1633. this was mainly because he supported copernianism and also when he published his own views about how scripture could be interpreted. they saw him as a protestant. his battles with the church continued throughout his life.

Who was queen christine and what was her role in the scientific revolution?

Last edited by Jessica_Johnson on Mon Oct 17, 2011 8:51 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Mon Oct 17, 2011 8:35 pm


Queen Christina of Sweden (r. 1632-1654) was a patron of Rene Decartes and Galileo. Galileo wrote a letter to her asking for scripture to form to fit the new science. She brought Rene Descartes to Stockholm to provide the regulations for a new science academy. She helped their ideas spread faster throughout Western Europe. Queen Christina was an exception, unlike most women during that time she was able to contribute more to the scientific revolution.

How did the scientific revolution change the way people viewed religion?
Scientist and regular people.
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Mon Oct 17, 2011 9:38 pm


The Scientific Revolution brought about new ideas that people had never thought about before. Such as the heliocentric theory which stated that the universe revolves around the sun and not the earth. People realized that they were not the most important thing God created because of this. Also, people started realizing that just because someone said something didn’t mean it was true. Like with witches people learned that a curse was just words and it didn’t mean anything. Also people relied on math equations that plugged into everyday life to explain things. During this time people started relying more on science and math to explain things as well as religion.

What was deductive reasoning and how did it change the way people thought?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Mon Oct 17, 2011 10:57 pm

Mine, sunny

Deductive reasoning was basically when you question everything. For exapmle, how in class, Mrs.Gupton asked me, how did I know that textbook wasnt actually a cat? How could I prove to her that it wasnt a cat? That you really cant prove anyone's exsistance. You can prove that you are here but not anyone else.

How did all of these new scietific revolutions and such change help form the beginnings of the witch trials, if it did at all?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Mon Oct 17, 2011 11:29 pm


It is mainly pointed out that the scientific revolution helped end with hunts and trials, not form them. From this revolution came a more scientific point of view. People began to understand that words spoken or even unspoken thoughts could actually alter physical things. Also, advancements in medicine, insurance, lawyer availabilty, etc., helped end physical afflictions and calm peoples minds. This gave them physical security, which the lack of in previous years was the cause of the witch hunts.

How did Kepler's views challenge the theological assumptions of the Catholic Church?

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C_Wezzy Khounxay

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Mon Oct 17, 2011 11:51 pm

I got this !

Kepler had Laws of Planetary Motion.

1. Every planet follows an elliptical orbit around the sun
2. An imaginary line from the center of the sun to the center of a planet sweeps out the same area in the same given time. One way of understanding this is by picturing it as planets move faster when they are closer to the sun, so even though they are closer so the area they sweep out would seem less, it is the same because in the same time frame the planet covers more distance.
3The square of a planet's period (year) is proportional to the cube of its distance from the sun.

Kepler contradicted everything the church taught and believed at the time and was subject to the same punishment as Copernicus, being branded a heretic, and that would destroy your reputation, put you in prison, or even sentence you to death.

How were Thomas Hobbes' and John Locke's views of thinking similar and different? Give two examples of each, Please. Very Happy
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 14 Discussion   Tue Oct 18, 2011 9:48 pm

Ill do it. I think im the last one but oh well

1. Both Hobbes and Locke were British philosophers.
2. Both men were big time thinkers of government and their role with the people.

1. Hobbes believed in Absolute government control where Locke'c criticism of absolutism became a major foundation in many future governments (United States).
2. Locke saw people at birth as a "blank tablet" which would later be corrupted by society and experiences. Hobbes believed that people were naturally self-centured creatures with a "perpetual and restless desire" for power and control.

Explain the idea of mechanism? What specific branch of science do you think they were talking about when they were saying that the would could be explained in the forms of mechanical forms? Why?
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