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 Chapter 12 Discussion

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PostSubject: Chapter 12 Discussion    Fri Sep 16, 2011 3:39 pm

In case you guys couldn't tell how much I love the "TUDORS" I thought I might post a question about my favorite royal family to prove a point . What were the most important moments in the rule of Elizabeth the first? Why is her rule, the Elizabethan Era, considered the Golden Age?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Mon Sep 19, 2011 9:29 pm


Some of the most important events were that she passed the Act of Supremacy that made her the “supreme governor” over both spiritual and temporal affairs in the Anglican Church. She also passed the Act of Uniformity that mandated the every English parish have a revised version of the second Book of Common Prayer. In 1563, she issued the Thirty Nine Articles which was a revised version of Thomas Cranmer’s original 42. She also had Mary Queen of Scots executed in 1587. The reasons her rule is considered the Golden Age is because when she came into power England was in debt and torn apart by religious battles, but when she died England was one of the most powerful and wealthiest countries in the world.

What events led up to the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre and what how did it affect the French War of Religion?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Tue Sep 20, 2011 6:08 pm


There are two major events that led up to the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. The first one is the attempted assassination of Admiral de Coligny, who was the leader of the Huguenots. The assassination failed, but this also made the Huguenots angry. The second event is the marriage of Henry III of Navarre to Margaret of Valois. This brought hundreds of Huguenots to the Catholic Paris. The Catholics of Paris obviously did not agree with the Protestants, and with so many in one place, tension grew until Saint Bartholomew’s Day when the massacre started.

How was Catherine de' Medici important in the roles of her sons' rule? What major events did she cause?
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Katie L

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Tue Sep 20, 2011 7:06 pm

this one is mine.

Catherine de Medicis was important to her sons’ rule because they were all fairly young while they were in power so she had a lot of influence over them. They didn’t really have the experience to make all the important decisions during their time so they took advice from Catherine. One of the major events she caused was the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. She feared the consequences of her involvement with the attempted assassination of Coligny. She convinced her son, King Charles IX, that only an attack on the Protestants could save them from the Huguenots. He followed her advice and thousands of Huguenots were murdered. Other major events she was involved with were the January Edict, which failed, and plots with the Guises, as well as influencing her sons on major decisions they made during their reigns.

Question: what were all of the causes of the French Wars of Religion and what did the different leaders see in it for themselves?

Last edited by Katie L on Tue Sep 20, 2011 7:24 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Tue Sep 20, 2011 7:16 pm

no one else seems to want this question and ill probably forget to answer a question tomorrow so im going to take this one...

1. The French monarchy became weakened after the death of the last heirs of Henry III because there was no recognized legitimate heir to the throne. 2. Animosity between the Catholics (House of Guise) and the Protestants (House of Bourbons) struck a flame after the monarchy tried to release tension between the them and promote religious tolerance which failed. 3. This one is not in our book, but the "Massacre at Vassy" where the 2nd Duke of Guise ordered Hugenots to stop worshipping because it was not legal for Protestant worship at that time. When they didn't the Duke ordered his soldiers to attack the unarmed peasants. This event led directly into the French Wars of Religion.
Phillip II found the most in the wars. He saw an opportunity to advance Catholicism on the English and from there to the rest of Europe. He used the French Wars of Religion as a distraction to attempt to draw Elizabeth's attention and not notice his fleet moving toward England.
The Guise Family also found a lot of power as a result of some events leading up to the wars. They found that they were able to influence the king greatly. They along with the Montmorency-Chatillion and Bourbon Families saw that they had an unbelievable opportunity to take over the French throne and become the Royal Family.

In two words, describe Phillip II. How did he have an effect on Spain for the rest of its history? What was the cause of this?

Last edited by 14hjsewell on Tue Sep 20, 2011 11:04 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Tue Sep 20, 2011 8:21 pm


Ultra catholic!
Phillip II was a very devouted catholic. In fact on of his goals was to keep all of Europe catholic, which failed becuase his efforts we not strong enough for the protestant reformation. Phillip II affected Spain in one way by destroying its once wonderful economic status. Phillip II spent money building churches and towards exploration. Taxes were raised in order to take care of all Spain's military expenses, such as the inquisition ( an effort to get rid of protestants). With taxes building the economy wasn't looking good and by 1598 Spain was bankrupt.

Describe how Elizabeth I was a politique, and how her decisions would affect the monarchs after her, what problems would they be left with once she died?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Tue Sep 20, 2011 10:05 pm


Elizabeth l never made a decision on anything. She did want to deal with Catholic or Protestant extremists. She did not execute many Catholics unlike her half sister Mary who executed hundreds of Protestants.. This could hurt the monarchs in the future because the country was mostly split between Catholics and Protestants. If a Catholic of Protestant ruler came to power they would be hated by half of the population who was a different religion. Elizabeth l did not wipe out all the Catholics to make England a Protestant nation so there was almost an equal number of people from each religion.

Who made up most of the Calvinist population? Why did this social group favor Calvinism over Catholicism and other religions?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Wed Sep 21, 2011 4:22 pm


The Calvanist population mas made up of mainly middle and some lower class. Middle class mainly favored the Calvainist religion because Calvanism supported predestination. Predestination, of course, is the belief that those that were to be saved has already been decided by God at birth and only a few are the elect chosen by God. The protestant belief in that the harder you work, the more you earn and the more likely you are to gain salvation greatly favored the middle and low classes, filled with people from peasents to merchants. These people believed since they worked hard for what they had, they must be in the elect chosen by God, so they had salvation.

What was the cause and effect of the thirty years war?
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Troy Palmer

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Wed Sep 21, 2011 4:51 pm


There were several reasons for the thirty years war. There were high religious tensions during the time period between Catholics and Protestants, especially Calvinism. Also, the unstableness of the Holy Roman Empire and the Catholic League were also major factors. The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) ended the conflicts in the Holy Roman Empire. It set the feature of the Peace of Augsburg back in place--ruler of the land determines its religion. It also gave Calvinists legal recognition. The treaty also officialy recognized the independence of the Swiss Confederacy and the United Provinces of the Netherlands. In the aftermath, Germany still continued to be divided and politically weak. The Thirty Years' War had a devastating effect on the population, and the last phase of the war was even called the worst European catastrophe since the Black Death.

Who were the Congregationalists and what did they have to do with the Conventicle Act of 1593?

Last edited by Troy Palmer on Wed Sep 21, 2011 5:12 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Alexander Smith

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Wed Sep 21, 2011 5:02 pm


Congregationalists were Protestants who believed in the autonomy of each congregation they were also called separatists or independents. This means that Congregationalists went against what the Church of England said which was that there is only one Church of England and the king or queen was its leader. When Congregationalists came along the English parliament had to stop them so the parliament made the conventicle act of 1593.

Question: What were the provisions of the Peace of Augsburg of 1555? How was it a religious compromise? What issues were left unresolved?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Wed Sep 21, 2011 5:36 pm


The provisions of the Peace of Augsburg of 1555 was that Lutheranism became a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire, but it did not extend recognition to non-Lutheran Protestants. The rulers within the Holy Roman Empire could choose the religion (Lutheranism or Catholicism) for their state to go by.

It was considered a religious compromise because it settled ongoing disputes during the religious wars. If the people living in that area didn’t like the religion, they could leave.

The issues that were left unsolved were that the Anabaptists and other sections of Calvinists were not officially recognized. This was one of the major causes of the 30 Years War because Protestants were left to Lutheran and Catholic Persecution.

Question: How did Henry IV get the throne of Navarre? Who was he? What did he do (or what were some of his actions) during the War of the Three Henrys.
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PostSubject: hold please   Wed Sep 21, 2011 9:55 pm

Got this one!

Henry IV was known as Henry III of Navarre before he became King of France. He was the Protestant leader which was also a Calvinist. In 1572 Henry of Navarre marries Marguerite Valois, daughter of Henry II and Catherine de Medici. When marrying her he becomes a step closer to the French throne, becoming a "brother" to Henry III who is now in power, which shot warnings of Protestantism growing and expanding. Although Henry of Navarre is not Catholic, he gets away with saying he is being converted to Catholicism. Meanwhile, Henry of Guise is coming into the picture by planning plots to taking the throne. Although Catherine de Medici was not Queen, she told her son Henry III what should be done, thinking all Hugenots should be executed. Thus leading to St. Bartholomew's Day, when 3,000 plus Hugenots were murdered in Paris, continuing into three more days of murder. Henry of Guise being a main key in the idea, is noticed by Henry III and causes him to side with Henry of Navarre. These two make a plot on assassinating Henry of Guise and proceed. After Henry of Guise is killed, a Dominican monk kills Henry III, leaving Henry of Navarre as Henry IV King of France. After becoming King, he eventually converts officially into Catholic, even though he was not a complete devoted one. In 1598, he wrote Edict of Nantes and proclaimed a religious settlement. In May 1610, a Catholic fanatic assassinated Henry IV.

We all know that Mary I becomes Queen of England, and so does Elizabeth I. Who takes the throne for nine days between these two ladies? How does the person qualify and relate to them?
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Luke 4

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Wed Sep 21, 2011 11:27 pm

Lady Jane Grey was the lady who took the thrown for 9 days. After Edward died Mary had to wait for verification of his death because if she claimed the thrown and he was still alive she could be executed for heresy. Meanwhile Lady Jane Grey had already received word of Edwards death and had taken claim to the throne. She was related to them by being Henry VIII niece.

Elizabeth never got married but she had many relations with men. Why did Parliament try to force her to get married in 1566?

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Thu Sep 22, 2011 1:30 am

i got this.!

in 1563, Elizabeth became ill with smallpox and a heated battle rose within parliament of who would succeed the queen if anything would happen. they urged her to get married and produce and heir or nominate someone to succeed her in case anything were to happen because if she didn't a civil war could break out over who would take her place, yet she refused to do either. in 1566, they still urged her to do the same and she gave a speech to parliament and said she would marry when it was convenient. she never got married or had an heir. she was succeeded my James I

Why was the war of 3 henrys so crucial to france and how did it change the country?
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Leah Armstrong

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Thu Sep 22, 2011 5:55 pm

Got It

The War of Three Henrys was the last war of The French wars of Religion. This was between three Henrys, Henry III, Henry of Navarre, and Henry of Guise. France was at great political disunity because the Bourbon Guise and the Valois were all fighting, the Bourbons and Guise for religious reasons and The Valois to try to keep France somewhat stable. This was a crucial part in French history and changed the country as a whole because two of the Henrys died. Henry of Guise and Henry III died and Henry of Navarre was left as the heir and became the king because he married the kings sister. This changed the line of the royal family from Valois to Bourbon. As king Henry VI granted the Edict of Nantes which granted Huguenots certain religious freedoms.

Question: The Thirty Years' War had four stages. Name them and the treaty that ended this war and what the treaty granted.
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Thu Sep 22, 2011 9:54 pm


The four periods of the Thirty Years’ War were the Bohemian period, the Danish period, the Swedish period, and the Swedish-French period. The treaty that ended the Thirty Years’ War was the Treaty of Westphalia. It was written in Latin instead of French, and it reasserted the Peace of Augsburg. It also did something which the Peace of Augsburg didn’t do, and that was acknowledge the Calvinists; it gave the Calvinists the legal recognition they’ve always wanted. Also, it was finally proclaimed that the Swiss Confederacy and the United Provinces of the Netherlands were independent.

What was the Edict of Nantes and how did it affect the events in chapter 12?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 12 Discussion    Thu Sep 22, 2011 10:44 pm

got it!

The Edict of Nantes was a formal statement that recognized the religious rights of minorities, granted the Huguenots many rights, including the freedom of public worship, the right of assembly, premission to maintain towns, and admission to public offices and universities, although Catholicism was still the major religion. This left distrust between the Protestants and Catholics. The treaty did offer Protestants more, but when it was revoked in 1685 by Louis XIV it led to a decline in France's economy when many left the country to find a better life. These events all contriubted to the Wars of Religion.

During the 30 Years War, Ferdinand II hired Albrecht of Wallenstein to help him lead his army. Wallenstein is known as being a very eccentric leader. In what ways was he eccentric and why did this eventually lead to his assassination?
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