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 Chapter 11 Discussion

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PostSubject: Chapter 11 Discussion    Wed Sep 07, 2011 8:58 pm

The Protestant Reformation changed Western Civilization forever. How are the historical figures of Martin Luther and John Calvin similar and different? Why did Martin Luther have such a time with other Protestant leaders of the day?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Sun Sep 11, 2011 4:38 pm


Both Martin Luther and John Calvin were reform leaders, and they were rather influential. Luther led Lutheranism, while Calvin led Calvinism. Calvinists believed in divine predestination; that was the belief that when you were born, God had already chosen whether you go to heaven or hell, you couldn’t choose for yourself. Luther on the other hand believed in justification by faith alone; this is where you could gain entrance into heaven, meaning that you could choose where you go, which is the total opposite of Calvinism. A similarity is that both Martin Luther and John Calvin stressed faith and taught of how meaningless good deeds were in terms of gaining salvation, and how useless it was for the Catholic church to gain salvation by the sale of indulgences.
Martin Luther had such a time with the Protestant leaders because he didn’t want to break away from the Catholic church. Other leaders wanted to break away from the church, but all Luther wanted to do was call another council to correct what he saw was wrong in the Catholic church.

How was Christendom divided during the early Middle Ages? And how did Luther bring about posting the 95 theses to the cathedral door and how did this affect society?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Mon Sep 12, 2011 8:52 pm


Christendom began to divide when people such as Martin Luther and Lorenzo Valla began to find errors in their original beliefs. Lorenzo collected older documents and would point out their flaws. Martin Luther researched and found many errors in the Catholic Church. People like them began to influence the people of this time period. They made them realize that a lot of sacraments were unnecessary and were just practice to give the church more money. This is when the protestant church was born. Luther posted his Theses on the door to spread an awareness of what the church was doing wrong. Some things mentioned in the theses included how the people cannot be relieved of their sins from purgatory. This action caused more people to be brave and question the church.

Why did Luther want to help the peasants form a peasant revolt? Why were Lutherans so against this idea? Why did Luther suddenly want to destroy the revolt, when the peasants took charge and acted on it?

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Tue Sep 13, 2011 5:17 pm

MINE lol!

Luther initially sympathized with the peasants because he condemned the tyranny of the princes and wanted them to meet the just demands of the peasants. Lutheran pamphleteers made the hard working peasants the model of the honest life God wanted all people to live. The Lutherans were against this because they were not social revolutionaries and saw no hope for their movement if it became intertwined with a peasant revolution. When the peasants revolted and used Luther’s name he condemned them as “un-Christian”. For Luther, freedom of the Christian lay in spiritual release, not in revolutionary politics. Luther would have contradicted his own teachings if he had joined in.

What was the Peace of Augsburg and how did it affect Catholicism and Protestantism?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Tue Sep 13, 2011 5:44 pm


The Peace of Augsburg was an agreement that split Catholicism and Protestantism. It allowed the ruler of the land to pick what religion, but people who were unhappy with one religion could move to a different region. Catholics and Protestants were now recognized as two different religions. High Catholics could not convert to Protestantism and take their land and titles with them.

How did the Reformation change women's roles? What was different about the way they were viewed?
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C_Wezzy Khounxay

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Tue Sep 13, 2011 6:29 pm

I got this

Women became more important after the Reformation. Protestants praised women as biblical figures such as The Virgin Mary, they also challenged the medieval views of women. Also, the reformers were more willing to permit divorce and remarriage on the grounds of adultery or abandonment. The protestant reformers also encourage women to go after a education, as long as the model their lives on the Bible. They were challenging the Catholics as well. Women also found biblical passages that made clear their equality to men in the presence of God. They were viewed more than just a "House Wife', Martin Luther says that the world need women, men need women in order to survive. They were viewed as an important role in human life to most people.

What was the Council of Trent about? Who started the Council of Trent? And what were the main topics that the Council of Trent was trying to hit? Finally, who was the Council of Trent aiming at the most (what religion) and why?
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Katie L

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Tue Sep 13, 2011 6:50 pm

I'll take this one.

The Council of Trent was started by Emperor Charles V, who forced Pope Paul III to call the council together in an effort to “reassert church doctrine”. Main topics of the Council of Trent were solving internal church discipline problems, reaffirming traditional church education of the clergy, maintaining church traditions such as the seven sacraments, and strengthening the authority of the bishops. The religion the council was aiming at the most was the Anabaptists because of their belief in “rebaptizing”, which went against the seven sacraments.

Question: Which Protestant groups posed the greatest threats to the Catholic Church and how did the Church deal with them?

Last edited by Katie L on Tue Sep 13, 2011 7:03 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Tue Sep 13, 2011 6:58 pm


The three major Protestant groups that posed as threats to the Catholic Church had to be the Lutherans, Calvinist, and the Zwiglians. The major thing that the Church did about these groups was the formation of the Council of Trent. This help protect the church from the reformers because it set the absolute definitions of what should happen to people in and out of the church and no longer left it up to the local clergy. They also excommunicated people like Martin Luther from the Church and declared the heretics. Over all the Church reformed itself to try to protect itself from the Protestants.

Question: Which canons from the Council of Trent gave direct blows to the the Protestant Religions and what were they trying to convey?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Tue Sep 13, 2011 7:29 pm

I'll take this question

Cannon I sticks out to me as one of the most direct blows to the Protestants. It says, "If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law were not all instituted by Jesus Christ, our Lord; or, that they are more, or less, than seven, to wit, Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Order, and Matrimony; or even that any one of these seven is not truly and properly a sacrament; let him be anathema." That is saying that only those 7 sacraments should be practiced and no other sacraments are to be performed. The Protestants didn't believe or practice all of the seven listed in Cannon I.
Another example is Cannon IV. It says, "If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary unto salvation, but superfluous; and that, without them, or without the desire thereof, men obtain of God, through faith alone, the grace of justification;-though all (the sacraments) are not ineed necessary for every individual; let him be anathema." The Lutherans and many other forms of Protestantism believed that you could be saved by just believing and trusting in Jesus as their perfect righteousness who was satisfying to God. Luther also said that your faith is not complete without works, however, the works don't save you. Cannon IV says that the sacraments(works) had to be preformed to be saved which is completely opposite of what Luther says.

Compare and Contrast three examples of the way the Church of England is similar/different to the Catholic religion (Be specific). Why did the Church of England break off from the Roman Catholic church?

Last edited by 14hjsewell on Wed Sep 14, 2011 7:33 am; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Tue Sep 13, 2011 9:46 pm


The Catholic Church and the Church of England are first similar in the fact that they still believe in the basic beliefs of Christianity, however the Catholic Church doesn’t allow annulment where the Church of England does and the Church of England does not see the Pope as the most powerful person in the Christian faith where Catholicism does. The Church of England sees the King of England as the over power of their Church. This started when Henry VIII wanted to annul his marriage of Queen Katherine to be able to marry Anne Boleyn. When the Pope wouldn’t allow this to occur (mainly because Queen Katherine, who cam from the very catholic country of Spain, had strong relationships with the pope and how he should rule) Henry VIII, as narcissistic as he was, believed that the Pope could not control what he did. And so to be able to rule as he pleased Henry VIII created the Church of England in which the king was in charge (This event was also a reason that the Church of England broke away form Catholicism).

FOR SOMEONE ELSE: How did the Roman Catholic Church make sure that in the council of Trent that there was no room for loopholes what so ever? Give examples and be specific! Very Happy
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Hollie Austin

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Wed Sep 14, 2011 7:47 am

In order to make sure there were no loopholes the council of teeny was simply very specific and straight forward with there new rules. For example those who questioned the church were wrong and that was that; specifically that rule was written for people such as martin Luther to "prove" he was wrong.

Name three of the three major European cities that turned protestant in the formation. What were there motivations?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Wed Sep 14, 2011 11:34 am

i got this!

Three European cities that contributed to the protestant reformation were Wittenberg, Germany, Zurich Switzerland, and Geneva, Switzerland. Their motivations were all different though. In Wittenberg, On October 31, 1517, Luther nailed his 95 theses against the selling of indulgences at the door of the church, marking the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. The peasant revolt of 1525 that Luther opposed also began in Wittenberg.
In Zurich, Zwingli, leader of the Swiss reformation. He was motivated by Erasmus just like Martin Luther was. He was known for opposition to the sale of indulgences. As the people’s priest of Zwingli, their reform guideline was simple. In Geneva, Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the dominant protestant force. John Calvin led the force. Genevan’s revolted against their prince-bishop. Calvin became a priest and a valuable ally in the reformation of this city and wrote many papers about his views, many about his ideals of pre-destination. Geneva eventually became home to thousand of devoted reformers. All three of these Cities were vital to the protestant reformation.

Question: Why was Elizabeth 1 considered the best ruler england has ever had? who were her siblings and what bill did parliament pass which allowed her allowed her to be queen?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Wed Sep 14, 2011 12:04 pm

Elizabeth I was considered one of the best ruler’s of England because she worked out a religious settlement that lasted a long time. She tried to find a settlement that would not offend the Catholics so she re-wrote the Book of Common Prayer. This was a very general prayer book in which people could bend the rules so that way conflicts won’t arise. Also she was a very strong leader. She fought off the Spanish Armada who wanted to invade England and the Netherlands. Not only that but they also wanted Queen Mary of Scots who Elizabeth I captured.

Just a quick note, Elizabeth became the Queen of England because of the Act of Succession in 1534 which stated the succession of the English Crown in the children of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. The act effectively, set Princess Elizabeth first in line for the throne.

Her siblings were Edward (half-brother) and Mary.

What was the Diet of Worms (1521) and how did it affect the Reformation?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Wed Sep 14, 2011 12:57 pm

When Martin Luther created his 95 theses, Pope Leo X condemned Luther for heresy and ordered him to the Diet of Worms. In April of 1521, Luther appeared as ordered before the Diet of Worms. This was a general assembly of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms, with Emperor Charles V presiding. Prince Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, obtained a safe conduct for Luther to and from the meeting. When Luther was ordered to recant and take back his teachings, he said to do so would be against Scripture, reason and his conscience. The Emperor presented the final draft of the Diet of Worms on May 26, 1521, declaring Luther an outlaw, banning his literature, and requiring his arrest. It also made it a crime for anyone in Germany to give Luther food or shelter.
He was disguised and hid by friends in Wartburg Castle.

During the year he spent at the castle, Luther translated the New Testament into German. This let all people, not only the clergy, be able to read the Word of God. By doing this, the lowerer classes could see the how the Catholic Church didn't always follow scripture, and brought a faster spread of Reformation.

What role did the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, play in the Protestant Reformation?

Last edited by Colleen.Billhartz on Wed Sep 14, 2011 5:17 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Alexander Smith

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Wed Sep 14, 2011 4:57 pm


Emperor Charles V was the emperor to call Luther to the Diet of Worms in which Luther was told to either renounce or reaffirm his views Luther ended up reaffirming his views and Charles V ended up making Martin Luther an outlaw heretic. In 1545 Charles opened the Council of Trent starting the Counter-Reformation. In 1546 Charles outlawed the Schmalkaldic League and drove the league out of southern Germany.

Identify the main religious beliefs of Ulrich Zwingli. How were they similar to Luther's beliefs? How were they different?

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Troy Palmer

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Wed Sep 14, 2011 8:55 pm


Zwingli, like Luther, believed in the Scripture more than the church. He believed that if something did not have literal support in Scripture, it should not be practiced or believed. He and Luther had similar beliefs, but there was one major difference in their individual theology--the Eucharist. Zwingli believed that it was more symbolic, but Luther believed Jesus to actually be physically present during the ceremony. Luther actually thought of Zwingli as a dangerous fanatic. The Marburg Colloquy, where they were supposed to work out their differences, actually solidified there being no chance at all they would ever be on the same page.

What was the Act of Supremacy and why was it created? afro elephant pig
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Wed Sep 14, 2011 9:38 pm

This ones mine!

The Act of Supremacy declared Henry VIII “the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England.” Henry had been fighting for papal approval for his divorce from Katherine of Aragon, and when it became clear that he wouldn’t get their approval he took matters into his own hands. The Act of Supremacy was aimed at increasing the power of the English monarch and decreasing the power of the Pope so that Henry could get his divorce from Katherine and marry Anne Boleyn.

What was the Peace of Augsburg? When was it made, and what did it do?
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Leah Armstrong

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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Thu Sep 15, 2011 7:50 pm


This was set into motion by Charles V's defeat by the Protestant armies in 1552 and he finally relented to the Peace.The Peace of Augsburg was a peace to make the division of Christendom permanent. It was made in September 1555, and recognized a law that had already been practices called Cuius regio, eius religio . It let the rulers of the land determine the religion of the region he ruled over. This only spread to the Lutherans though not to the Calvinist or Anabaptists.

Question: How did the literature of the time begin to change and who were the most influential writers of this time?
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PostSubject: Re: Chapter 11 Discussion    Thu Sep 15, 2011 10:27 pm

i got this!

Throughout the Reformation, literature changed significantly. At this point in time, Europe was still up in arms over topics like religion. New religious groups such as Calvinists, Puritans, and Lutherans helped to influence this change. Literature was a mix of this new style of life and all the new ideas that came with it and the old way of life with all its customs.
There are two writers from this time period that are the most influential: William Shakespeare, known for his many sonnets and plays, and Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, best known for writing Don Quixote. Other notable writers include Lope de Vega and Pedro Calderon de la Barca.

During this time period, family life began to change greatly. How did it change, and what contributed to this transformation?
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PostSubject: me   Thu Sep 15, 2011 11:35 pm

The changing in falmily life during this time was said to be because of the stress of the social and economic pressures. You begin seeing the change in the ages of being married. Instead of younger ages, it became into their mid-ages. Arranged marriages began to slow down. Parents became more interested in the actual feelings of two people. Family sizes also changed. Instead of having two to four children, the norm came to be having six to seven children. As you grow in society, changes also grow. People begin seeing the true meaning of marriage by studying the bible, through their choice of religion.

Not only did family life change as a whole, but the roles of women during the Reformation changed also. What were a few changes and what made them significant?
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